This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. Two of the more common types are the armored scale and the soft scale. The male scale is more elongate with a black spot at one end. GENERAL SCALE LIFE CYCLE. The adult female scale is about 0.10 (2.5 mm) inch long, with a grayish, oval, waxy covering. Signs and Symptoms. Male Boisduval scale form an armored scale while those of brown scales are small winged creatures. Treatment options. Deciding if management is necessary—an important IPM concept—is not well-established for scale insects or any landscape pests. Armored scale parasites include species of tiny Aphytis and Aspidiotiphagus (family Aphelinidae), and Plagiomerus, Comperiella and Signiphora (family Encyrtidae). Does alcohol kill scale on plants? The oystershell scale is one of the most common armored scale insects that cause injury to shade trees and shrubs. This is where Japanese maple scales, an aggressive armored scale, hang out. It has a waxy covering with a yellow or light brown spot near the center. Armored scales, on the other hand, don’t make honeydew. Euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi, is an armored scale that is a very common pest of euonymus and pachysandra. 1. Armored scale insects are among the most damaging and least understood of the pests that prey on forest trees, fruit and nut crops, landscape ornamentals, and greenhouse plants. The covering enlarges with each molt. There are several generations a year. Armored scale on orchid. The adult female oleander scale is an armored scale that is about 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long and oval. Heavy infestations might kill a tree or shrub. How to Treat Scale on Shrubs. Soft scale produce a sticky substance called honeydew; armored scale do not. If you see small, brown bumps on your succulent, then you may have a scale problem. Heavy infestations can kill twig or branches. Often times, the first sign of CMBS is the black sooty mold on the tree bark. The white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, needle yellowing, and even branch death. 1997). Spray your indoor plants with insecticidal soap or oil labeled for indoor plants before bringing them back indoors in the fall. If you encounter scale of another color, it’s probably a soft scale. These guys don’t follow the traditional insect cycle of egg-larva-pupa-adult. Scale insect crawler activity and summer treatment options. Although the individual insects are small, infestations are often dense and plainly visible. Verify that it is scale you are dealing with. The primary role of males is to mate and die. Look for small, white or brown insects clinging to leaf petioles -- the stalks attaching the leaf blades to the stem -- and lining the twigs and stems. This can reduce plant growth and vigor. Pit scales are likely to do the same to the raised plant tissue that surrounds them. Scales spend most of their lives feeding on the same spot of a plant, and unable to walk. New users enjoy 60% OFF. Adult males generally are small, two-winged gnat-like insects which are seldom seen. It occurs throughout the United States and is more common in northern states than southern states. If you see a fleshy body beneath a waxy scale cover, the scale will probably be controlled with an application of oil (Photo by E. Rebek). Insecticide applications must be timed to ensure trees are protected prior to when nymphs insert their mouthparts into the needles and begin to feed. Numerous species of scale insects, typically classified as soft or armored, can attack a broad array of shrubs. Armored scale crawlers then begin to build the waxy coverings over their bodies. Many armored scales are serious pests of ornamental shrubs, trees, groundcovers and turfgrasses in South Carolina. Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are economically important pests of ornamental trees and shrubs in nurseries and landscapes. Their drab, bark-like appearance makes them easy to overlook, even on close inspection. There are over 6000 species of hard scale insects and about 1000 of these species are common to North America. • Armored scales have a hard, shield-like cover composed of shed skins and wax that conceals the body but is not attached to the body of the insect. Magnolia scale is our largest soft scale insect, reaching ½ inch in length. The plant may die. This cover can be removed to reveal the soft-bodied insect feeding beneath (Figure 1). Scale has several different “pupa” stages referred to as nymphs or instars. Without treatment, heavy scale infestations will reduce … The adult female varies from 1/12 to 1/8 inch in length. Timing of crawler hatch will vary with each species of armored scale. Armored Scale Videos - Download 14 stock videos with Armored Scale for FREE or amazingly low rates! Outdoors scale is kept under control by beneficial insects. Close-up of armored scale on orchid Some types of armored scales include pine needle scale, oyster shell scale, and euonymus scale. Euonymus, oystershell, California red and San Jose are some pernicious armored scales. This key pest species usually infests lilac Philaphedra scale on croton. These insects like to eat the sap of succulents, damaging the plants and making them susceptible to diseases. Apply Transtect™ to the soil or as a systemic basal bark spray in the spring prior to crawler emergence. Types of scale on citrus plants in the soft scale group are Caribbean Black Scale and Cottony Cushion Scale. Soft scales reach a maximum length of approximately 1/4 inch, and have a smooth and waxy surface. Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) feed on the contents of cells just under the surface of leaves and bark and excrete their waste in the form of a protective cover (called a test). Euonymus scale is now established in the United States and Canada and has become a major concern in many landscapes. Timing is everything when it comes to treating scale insects. Armored scale live under a platelike, nippled cover that is approximately 1/8 inch in diameter. Among the common hosts are lilac, ash, dogwood, maple, and willow. Damage caused by scale insects. Thailand, this armored scale is considered a pest of cycads, but is usually maintained in low densities by parasitoids (Tang et al. Citrus scale control can be accomplished with the use of pesticides, biological control via the introduction of indigenous parasitic wasps (Metaphycus luteolus, … For example, sago palms can be infested by the similar-looking cycad scale and oleander scale. Armored scale on indoor plant. Some look like tiny oyster shells, some resemble fish or reptile scales, and there are plenty of others. Scale insects can be devastating to fruits, ornamentals, trees and houseplants if the infestation is severe. If the coverings are removed, the female body is yellow, while the male scale is brownish yellow. They range in size from 1 to 3 millimeters. This scale spends the winter on small twigs as tiny, dark-colored nymphs. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. There are two types of scale insects; armored and soft scales. Controlling Citrus Scale. Treatment Strategy. Characteristics of hard scales generally include 1) two or more generations per year; 2) no honeydew production; 3) circular or rounded in shape; 4) lower crawler activity; and 5) separate protective covering. It is important to correctly distinguish the scale family (e.g., armored versus soft scale) and often the particular species of scale to determine whether control is warranted; and if so, what methods and timing of control action are effective. Inspect your red maple trees to determine what kind of scale insects you have by shaking the red maple tree’s branches over a sheet of paper and looking for scale insects. Scales have short life cycles, but may cycle many times a year. Since scale suck the sap or juices from plants and plant leaves, the leaves may turn yellow and fall off. Typically, a month or more is required for completion of a scale generation, but a mere two to three weeks is possible in favorable conditions. Pine Needle Scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. Damage. In the spring, the scales begin to feed, mature, and change color. The armored scale's straw-like mouth moves like a plumber’s snake to burst plant cells and feed on their contents. The crawlers of most soft scale species leave the twigs where the eggs were located and move to the leaves to begin feeding. Oystershell scale is a common armored scale that can infest more than 100 plant species. The crawlers feed on sap from the leaves all summer, but return to the twigs to overwinter. There are two groups of scales that commonly attack succulents: the armored scale and the soft scale insects. Tree scale treatment. There are no established thresholds based on number of scales per plant that will help you decide if the population is likely to cause aesthetic damage. CMBS might be found anywhere on crapemyrtles, and often appears near pruning sites and branch crotches of more mature wood. Once dead, the soft scale will fall from the tree instead of remaining stuck as the armored scale. The adult male scale is elongate. The scale is most easily treated during its crawler stage, this is also the stage when it moves between plants. Males and females are about 1/10" inch long and resemble oyster shells. They tend to be gray/brown/black. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (let’s call it CMBS) is a small insect that appears as a white or gray felt-like encrustation. Infestations are common on trees stressed by physical damage, drought, temperature, or improper planting. Scale insects hatch from eggs and typically develop through 2 nymphal instar growth stages known as “crawlers”. The cycad aulacaspis scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, and the tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green, are economically important armored scale pests of cycads, Cycas spp., and camellia, Camellia spp., respectively, in the southeastern United States. Another difference is that the waxy cover on armored scales serves as a protective shell. The most common scale insects that infest maple trees are the armored varieties oystershell scale and scurfy scale, as well as the soft varieties cottony maple scale and lecanium scale. All armored scale bugs are round or oval in shape, no more than a centimeter in diameter, and usually have dark coloration. Black, brown and European fruit scales are some pernicious soft scales. Different species of scale vary in appearance and there are more than 1,000 species in North America. Olive scale is an armored scale and like all armored scales, resembles a small encrustation on the plant. If the coverings are removed, the scale bodies of both sexes are reddish purple. Brown soft scale and honeydew. There are two types of scale insects: soft scales, otherwise known as bark scales, and hard scales, which are also called armored scales. If you have been using the same treatment for more than a few months and still have scale problems, you must switch treatments as some of the scale may have become immune. Most scale predators feed on both armored and soft scales and often on other pests. Scale insects feed by sucking sap from trees and shrubs through piercing-sucking mouth parts. The most common species of scale insects are the armored scale or hard scale, the soft scale, and mealybugs.. How Hard Scale Hurts Trees Armored scale damages plants by extracting plant fluids. These scale insects often produce copious amounts of honeydew. Pine needle scale is an armored scale that can have two generations per year. Common symptoms of infestation include premature leaf drop and branch dieback . Armored Scales or Hard Scale is a disease caused by insects. When this scale insect was first described in Europe in 1758, it was referred to as the mussel scale. Basic Scale Biology . Armored scales which attack camellias include the Florida Red Scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum; Tea Scale, Fioriniae theae; Oyster Shell Scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi; Camellia Scale, Lepidosaphes camelliae; and Greedy Scale, Hemiberlesia rapax. ... treatment for controlling the cycad aulacaspis scale insect has been spraying them with oils, like fish oil emulsion (1 part oil to 100 parts of water) or petroleum-based horticul- tural oil. Euonymus scales can be killed by oil in the dormant season because they winter under scale covers.
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